Saka dynasty period

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Saka dynasty period

Kushan Dynasty was another dynasty which came to power after the Mauryan empire. Kushan Dynasty descended from Yuezhi who ruled most of northern Indian subcontinent and parts of Central Asia. Kushans belonged to Yuch- chi tribe who lived in Chinese Turkistan. Because of pressure from other tribes they were divided into five branches one among them was Kushans.

Soon Kushans became powerful and invaded India in 1 st century A. They occupied western parts of India after defeating Sakas and Parhians.

Kushan Dyansty is one of the most interesting dynasties which ruled over Jammu and Kashmir. They practised Zorostriansm, Buddhism and also Saivism. Kujula kadphises is probably the founder and the 1 st King of Kushan dynasty. He probably began to rule in 40A. Kadphises was the great grandfather of kaniska 1. The successor of kadphises was his son Vima kadphises who acquired large part of north India. Coins of kadphises depict his authority being extended up to Banaras and till Indus basin.

Kadphises died in 77 A. He was considered in par with Chandragupta Maurya and Asoka for his military and religious achievement. The exact date of accession is not clear but it is considered as around 78 A.

Kaniska sent an ambassador to China with a marriage proposal; Chinese thought this as an insult to them and ill treated the ambassador of Kushan empire. This led to fierce battle between kanishka and General Panchao.

Ultimately kanishka was defeated. The city of Purushapura was made the capital, now it is in Peshawar. There are evidences to show that kanishka made Purushapura an important city for trade relations. Control of his government was done by keeping a number of government heads by name Satraps, Meridarers and Strategio.

They were also known as governors, district officer and military officer in all locality. Ultimately, Kanishka came out victorious over the Chinese, and established his sovereignty over Khotan, Yarkand, and Kashgar.

Khushan Dynasty under Kanishka conquered interior of the Gangetic valley and occupied Magadha. Kanishka was tolerant towards all religions. He was a great follower of Buddhism. He convened fourth Buddhist meet in Kashmir. He started Mahayana. According to the directions given by kanishka, the Sarvathidin monks of Mahayana Buddhism held various religious meet in different parts of the country to spread Buddhism.

Kanishka built a huge foot tall Buddhist shrine at Peshawar. The Chinese traveller Xuan zang who came to India in 7 th century A. The language used by Mahayana monks was Sanskrit. The Mahayana was widely spread in Tibet, China, Burma, and many more places.

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Sarnath, Mathura and Amaravati contains large number of Buddhists work.It is worth noting, the Gupta Dynasty ruled for more than about years. The lifestyle and culture of the Gupta empire is known to us through the availability of various ancient scriptures, coins, inscriptions, and texts, etc.

Thereafter, following significant rulers from Gupta dynasty ruled during this period. After the death of Skandagupta, there were other ruler of the Gupta dynasty like Purugupta, Narasimhagupta, Buddhagupta.

They were not able to save the empire from Hun invasions. With the rise of Malwa and continuous Hun invasion, the Gupta dynasty totally disappeared. We hope this short compilation about the rulers of Gupta Dynasty is useful for quick revision of the Gupta Period. If you want us to make any additions to the article, please mention your suggestion in the comment section below.

Vishakadutta had written Mudrarakshasam that narrates the ascent of the king Chandragupta Maurya r. Gold Coin showing Chandragupta II. Nalanada University. How To Prepare. Test Series. Study Material. Online Quiz. Related Posts. February 27th, 15 Comments. February 27th, 2 Comments. February 19th, 2 Comments.

February 17th, 1 Comment. This comment form is under antispam protection. Most reacted comment. Hottest comment thread. Recent comment authors.The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shungaafter the fall of the Maurya Empire. Its capital was Pataliputrabut later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Besnagar modern Vidisha in eastern Malwa. Pushyamitra Shunga ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra.

There were ten Shunga rulers. However, after the death of Agnimitra, the second king of the dynasty, the empire rapidly disintegrated: [2] inscriptions and coins indicate that much of northern and central India consisted of small kingdoms and city-states that were independent of any Shunga hegemony. Art, education, philosophy, and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, and architectural monuments such as the stupa at Bharhutand the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi.

Shunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi script and was used to write Sanskrit.

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The Shunga Empire played an imperative role in patronising culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place. Artistry also progressed with the rise of the Mathura art style.

He was assassinated by his minister Vasudeva Kanva and is said to have been overfond of the company of women. The Shunga dynasty was then replaced by the subsequent Kanvas.

saka dynasty period

Pushyamitra Shunga then ascended the throne. Pushyamitra Shunga became the ruler of Magadha and neighbouring territories. His realm essentially covered the central parts of the old Mauryan Empire. Some ancient sources however claim a greater extent for the Shunga Empire: the Asokavadana account of the Divyavadana claims that the Shungas sent an army to persecute Buddhist monks as far as Sakala Sialkot in the Punjab region in the northwest:. Pushyamitra equipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama in Pataliputra.

Pushyamitra therefore destroyed the sangharamakilled the monks there, and departed. After some time, he arrived in Sakalaand proclaimed that he would give a Also, the Malavikagnimitra claims that the empire of Pushyamitra extended to the Narmada River in the south.

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They may also have controlled the city of Ujjain. Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years — BCE. He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha when the story takes place. The power of the Shungas gradually weakened. It is said that there were ten Shunga emperors. Following the Mauryans, the first Brahmin emperor was Pushyamitra Shunga, and is believed by some historians to have persecuted Buddhists and contributed to a resurgence of Brahmanism that forced Buddhism outwards to KashmirGandhara and Bactria.

Pushyamitra is said to have burned down Buddhist monasteries, destroyed stupas, massacred Buddhist monks and put rewards on their heads, but some consider these stories as probable exaggerations. Pushyamitra equipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama.

Indian Puranic sources also, such as the Pratisarga Parva of the Bhavishya Puranadescribe the resurgence of Brahmanism following the Maurya Dynastyand the killing of millions of Buddhists:.

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By the influence of Vedic mantras, four Kshatriyas appeared from the yajna sacrifice. They kept Ashoka under their control and annihilated all the Buddhists. It is said there were 4 million Buddhists and all of them were killed by uncommon weapons". Pushyamitra is known to have revived the supremacy of the Bramahnical religion and reestablished animal sacrifices Yajnas that had been prohibited by Ashoka.Apart from some important dynasties ruling in the post-Mauryan period in north India, there were a number of republics ruling smaller states.

Shak Kushan Dynasty

The information about these small dynasties is extracted from their coins on which their names were written. Most of these dynasties enumerated abovelater on, became tributaries of the Gupta Dynasty and vanished altogether after the fourth century A.

Before the emergence of the Satavahanas in Maharashtra and Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas dynasties were ruled southern India the region was settled by megalithic people. The Greek writer Pliny mentions that the Andhras were powerful people who possessed a large number of villages and thirty towns, an army of one lakh infantry, two thousand cavalries and one thousand elephants.

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During the Mauryan age, they were part of the Mauryan Empire, but it appears that immediately after the fall of the dynasty, the Andhras declared themselves free. Satakarni-I was the third king. He made extensive conquests and performed two Ashvamedhayajna. The Nanaghat inscription described his achievements in details. Nahapana had conquered the part of Satavahana territory after Satakarni-II. A large number of coins of Nahapana has been found in Nasik area. The Satavahanas became powerful again during the reign of Gautamiputra Satakarni.

His achievements are recorded in glowing terms in the Nasik inscription of Queen-mother, Gautami Balasri.

saka dynasty period

This inscription was engraved after his death and in the nineteenth year of the reign of his son and successor Pulmavi II. In Nasik inscription, Gautamiputra Satakarni has been described as one who destroyed the Sakas, Yavanas, and Pahlavas. He overthrew Nahapana and restricted a large number of his silver coins. Satakarni dedicated a cave in Nasik in the eighteenth year of his reign and granted some land to ascetics in the twenty-fourth year. Gautamiputra Satakarni is the first king bearing matronymic and this practice was followed by nearly all his successors.

Gautamiputra was succeeded by his son Vasisthiputra Sri Pulmavi in about A. The coins and inscription of Pulmavi have been found in Andhra Pradesh. This shows that Andhra was the part of Satavahana Empire in the second century A. Perhaps, in order to save the Satavahana Empire from the onslaught of the Sakas, Pulmavi married the daughter of Saka ruler Rudradaman.

But this Saka king defeated the next Satavahana ruler twice. Sri Yajna Satakarni A. From the distribution of his coins, it appears that he ruled over a large kingdom extending from the Bay of Bengal in the east to the Arabian Sea in the west.

Thus he regained the land that the Sakas had conquered from his predecessors. Maritime trade and activities during his reign had been proved by the depiction of ship with a fish on his coins.

The successors of Yajna were weak and unworthy to govern such a large empire. Hence, the Satavahana Empire collapsed especially when Abhiras seized Maharashtra and Ikshvakus and Pallavas appropriated the eastern provinces. Age of Smaller Dynasties Advertisements. Previous Page. Next Page. Previous Page Print Page.Shaka satrapalso called Kshatrapaeither of two dynasties of satraps in northwestern India who ruled with considerable independence on behalf of the Pahlava suzerains.

The two families are both known to Indian literature as the Shakas from the native word for Scythians and to most Western historians as the Kshatrapas. These documents claim that Nahapana ruled over a large area in western India around the Gulf of Khambhat Cambaywhich he could only have won from the Andhras.

This possession was brief, however, because the Andhra king Gautamiputra is known to have destroyed the Shakas in the latter part of the Shaka year 46 — ce. The second dynasty of satraps, founded by Chastana in 78 ceruled for two or three centuries in western India and gave its name to the Shakanripakala, or era of Shaka kings, in Indian history. The rulers of this house can be dated with incomplete accuracy from their coinage. Chastana is mentioned by Ptolemythe ancient Egyptian astronomer and geographer of Greek descent, as ruling into the 2nd century probably 78— ce and also considerably aggrandized his holdings at the expense of the Andhras.

The wars of these Shakas with the Andhras continued for several regnal generations. The direct line of Chastana became extinct in — ce with the death of Vishvasena, son of Bhartridaman. Shaka satrap. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Shaka satrap Indian dynasty. See Article History.

saka dynasty period

Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. At Mathura the Shaka rulers of note were Rajuvala and Shodasa. Ultimately the Shakas settled in western India and Malava and came into conflict with the kingdoms of the northern Deccan and the Ganges valley—particularly during the reigns of Nahapana, Cashtana, and Rudradaman—in the first two centuries ce.

Age of Smaller Dynasties

Indiacountry that occupies the greater part of South Asia. Its government is a constitutional republic that represents a highly diverse population consisting of thousands….Gautamiputra Satakarni was a famous emperor of the Andhra dynasty Sattavahanas. The Sattavahanas mentioned in the Puranas as the Andhra king.

The founder of the Sattavahana dynasty was Simuka, he defeated the last Kanva king Susharman and founded the Sattavahana dynasty, in next half century the emperor declined to owe to the Scythian invasion. But during the Gautamiputra Satakarni time, the emperor recovered and nourished at its peak. His life story, administration, his invasions and incidents in his life discussed in the book Nasik Prasasti.

This book is the most important source to know the life of Gautami putra Satakarni to the present historians.

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In his period Saka emperor was very strong under Nahapana. The first sixteen years Gautamiputra devoted to the preparations to conquest Saka Dynasty. At the mean time, Nahapana seized the Western Deccan from Sattavahanas. Then Gautamiputra carried out a valiant struggle against the Sakas and killed Saka chief Nahapana and his minister Rishavadatta. In later years Gautamiputra uprooted the Yavanas and Pahlavas from Deccan and also recovered his paternal land Maharashtra, the original homeland of the Sattavahanas.

The founder of the Satavahana dynasty was King Simuka. After him the dynasty named on his name Satavahana dynasty. According to the inscriptions of Puranas, Simuka defeated few areas which were under the rule of some Sunga Dynasty rulers in the North. He also captured a large territory which was in the hands of Kanva Dynasty rulers and established a powerful Kingdom in the Deccan.

The Satavahanas were originally belonged to somewhere in Deccan plateau and mostly belonged to the Andhra area.

In the Puranas these Satavahanas are described as the Andhras. So that Andhras were the most powerful and the confidential races in Ancient India. After the overthrow of the Sakas, the Sattavahana dynasty turned as a formidable power in South. Gautamiputra Satakarni was a benevolent ruler and had a strong sense of public duty.

His administration based on twin foundations of Sastric Laws and humanism. Hence he introduced taxation system on the base of economic stability of the people. He uplifted the tax on the poor and downtrodden people. He strongly condemned the narrow casteism which had crept up in the society and promoted the Varnasrama dharma. Since he tried to stop the growth of sub-castes.

He belonged to a Brahmanist but he encouraged the other religious sects and their tradition and culture. Gautamiputra Satakarni was a great ruler and successful in unifying the major parts of India under the rule of Sattavahana Empire. Even he regained parented territories successfully.

saka dynasty period

He brought so many reformations among the administration systems.It spread to encompass much of Afghanistan[16] and then the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi Benareswhere inscriptions have been found dating to the era of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka the Great.

He played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent and its spread to Central Asia and China. The Kushans were most probably one of five branches of the Yuezhi confederation, [18] [19] an Indo-European nomadic people of possible Tocharian [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] origin, who migrated from Gansu and settled in ancient Bactria. The Kushans possibly used the Greek language initially for administrative purposes, but soon began to use Bactrian language. A direct road from Gandhara to China remained under Kushan control for more than a century, encouraging travel across the Karakoram and facilitating the spread of Mahayana Buddhism to China.

The Kushan empire fragmented into semi-independent kingdoms in the 3rd century AD, which fell to the Sasanians invading from the west, establishing the Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom in the areas of SogdianaBactria and Gandhara.

In the 4th century, the Guptasan Indian dynasty also pressed from the east. The last of the Kushan and Kushano-Sasanian kingdoms were eventually overwhelmed by invaders from the north, known as the Kidaritesand then the Hephthalites. The displaced Greek dynasties resettled to the southeast in areas of the Hindu Kush and the Indus basin in present-day Afghanistan and Pakistanoccupying the western part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom.

Some traces remain of the presence of the Kushans in the area of Bactria and Sogdiana in the 2nd-1st century BCE, where they had displaced the Sakaswho moved further south. On the ruins of ancient Hellenistic cities such as Ai-Khanoumthe Kushans are known to have built fortresses. Various sculptures and friezes from this period are known, representing horse-riding archers, [42] and, significantly, men such as the Kushan prince of Khalchayan with artificially deformed skullsa practice well attested in nomadic Central Asia.

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The Chinese first referred to these people as the Yuezhi and said they established the Kushan Empire, although the relationship between the Yuezhi and the Kushans is still unclear. The earliest documented ruler, and the first one to proclaim himself as a Kushan ruler, was Heraios.

He calls himself a " tyrant " in Greek on his coins, and also exhibits skull deformation. He may have been an ally of the Greeks, and he shared the same style of coinage. Heraios may have been the father of the first Kushan emperor Kujula Kadphises. More than a hundred years later [than the conquest of Bactria by the Da Yuezhi], the prince [ xihou ] of Guishuang Badakhshan established himself as king, and his dynasty was called that of the Guishuang Kushan King. Qiujiuque Kujula Kadphises was more than eighty years old when he died.

He defeated Tianzhu [North-western India] and installed Generals to supervise and lead it. The Yuezhi then became extremely rich. All the kingdoms call [their king] the Guishuang [Kushan] king, but the Han call them by their original name, Da Yuezhi. The name Guishuang was adopted in the West and modified into Kushan to designate the confederation, although the Chinese continued to call them Yuezhi. Gradually wresting control of the area from the Scythian tribes, the Kushans expanded south into the region traditionally known as Gandhara an area primarily in Pakistan 's Pothowar and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region and established twin capitals in Begram [48] and Peshawarthen known as Kapisa and Pushklavati respectively.

The Kushans adopted elements of the Hellenistic culture of Bactria. On their coins they used Greek language legends combined with Pali legends in the Kharoshthi scriptuntil the first few years of the reign of Kanishka.

After the middle of Kanishka's reign, they used Kushan language legends in an adapted Greek scriptcombined with legends in Greek Greek script and legends in Prakrit Kharoshthi script. The Kushans "adopted many local beliefs and customs, including Zoroastrianism and the two rising religions in the region, the Greek cults and Buddhism ".

The great Kushan emperor Vima Kadphises may have embraced Shaivism a sect of Hinduismas surmised by coins minted during the period.


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